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Utilisation de bactériophages pour contrôler les populations de Aeromonas salmonicida résistantes aux antibiotiques.

Imbeault, Sandra; Parent, Serge; Blais, Jean-François; Lagacé, Michel; Uhland, Carl (2006). Utilisation de bactériophages pour contrôler les populations de Aeromonas salmonicida résistantes aux antibiotiques. Revue des sciences de l'eau , vol. 19 , nº 4. p. 275-282. DOI: 10.7202/014415ar.

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Résumé

La furonculose, causée par la bactérie Aeromonas salmonicida, représente une des principales causes de mortalité chez les salmonidés d’élevage. L’antibiothérapie constitue l’approche la plus largement répandue pour contrer les effets néfastes de cette maladie. Cependant, le développement de bactéries résistantes aux antibiotiques représente un problème de plus en plus préoccupant. La présente recherche a visé à explorer une nouvelle option pour lutter contre la furonculose, soit la possibilité d’utiliser des bactériophages comme moyen de prévention pour contrôler les populations de A. salmonicida. La sensibilité de 19 souches de A. salmonicida, résistantes à aucun, un, deux ou trois antibiotiques, a été évaluée vis‑à‑vis de 12 bactériophages. Les résultats ont montré que les souches de A. salmonicida résistantes aux antibiotiques utilisés dans l’industrie piscicole canadienne sont aussi sensibles à de nombreux bactériophages, tout comme des souches sensibles aux antibiotiques. Il serait donc possible d’envisager un traitement préventif à base de bactériophages pour lutter contre la furonculose chez les salmonidés d’élevage.

Abstract

Aquaculture represents an increasingly important source of food fish worldwide. The aquaculture industry currently produces between 25 and 30% of all seafood for human consumption. In Canada, salmonids (salmon, rainbow trout, arctic char and brook trout) account for the majority of food fish production. Furonculosis involving the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is one of the most important infections observed in salmonid farms. An A. salmonicida infection results either in morbidity and mortality with few clinical signs, or in weakened fish with skin ulcers that make them unmarketable for human consumption. The A. salmonicida bacterium uses a number of mechanisms to counteract the natural barrier of the immune system. Bacterial growth is encouraged by an increase in the ambient temperature and in the concentration of organic matter in the water.

During recent years, a relationship between therapeutic failures and the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has been reported in salmonid farms. This problem is complicated by the fact that only four antibiotics are authorized for the aquaculture industry in Canada. One consequence of this increasing resistance is a renewed interest in alternative therapies and prevention. Bacteriophages (bacterial viruses) may represent one such alternative. In recent decades, interest in bacteriophages as antibacterial agents has been growing in the Americas and in Asia. Some researchers have tried to exploit the potential of bacteriophages to reduce bacterial populations in infections affecting humans, while others have tried to identify uses in veterinary medicine.

The overall objective of this research was to explore a new treatment against furonculosis infection based on the use of bacteriophages to inhibit growth of A. salmonicida cells. In this study, we looked at 19 strains of A. salmonicida, resistant to zero, one, two or three antibiotics, and evaluated their sensitivity to 12 bacteriophages. The results showed that the antibiotic-resistant strains were sensitive to as many bacteriophages as were the bacterial strains sensitive to antibiotics. They also showed that all the A. salmonicida strains were sensitive to several bacteriophages and, conversely, that several bacteriophages were effective against all the A. salmonicida strains. It may thus be possible to consider a preventive treatment using bacteriophages to fight against furonculosis in salmonid farms.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: bactériophages; résistances bactérienes; aquaculture; Aeromonas salmonicida; bacteriophages; bacterial resistance; aquaculture
Centre: Centre Eau Terre Environnement
Date de dépôt: 08 janv. 2021 14:59
Dernière modification: 08 janv. 2021 14:59
URI: http://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/10959

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