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Evolutionary ecotoxicology of wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations chronically exposed to a polymetallic gradient.

Bourret, Vincent; Couture, Patrice; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Bernatchez, Louis (2008). Evolutionary ecotoxicology of wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations chronically exposed to a polymetallic gradient. Aquatic Toxicology , vol. 86 , nº 1. p. 76-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.10.003.

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Résumé

Depending on such factors as the intensity and duration of the exposure, and the genetic diversity and connectedness of the starting population, exposure to elevated metal concentrations can result in population level alterations such as demographic bottlenecks or metal-induced selection. These processes can be revealed using a population genetic approach, and have important implications with respect to population persistence. The main objective of this study was to examine the role of metal contamination in driving evolutionary changes by documenting patterns of genetic diversity within and among populations of wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in two major mining regions that have been subjected to metal emissions from smelters for at least 80 years; Rouyn-Noranda, Québec and Sudbury, Ontario. Yellow perch populations from ten lakes representing a gradient of metal contamination in each of the two lake systems were evaluated concurrently to reveal relationships between metal contamination and genetic diversity. These replicated sympatric observations allowed us to evaluate correlations and infer causal relationships between metal exposure and evolutionary responses in this species. Within-population gene diversity over all loci was negatively correlated with liver cadmium contamination (P < 0.001; r² = 0.47). Similarly, a negative correlation between gene diversity and liver copper contamination was observed at a single locus (Pfla L1, P = 0.005; r² = 0.33), suggesting a local effect of copper contamination. Internal relatedness, an index of individual diversity, presented the opposite tendency as the more contaminated individuals were more diverse than were the less contaminated ones in contaminated and reference populations. Our results thus suggest that the selective response to contamination has been large enough to substantially reduce the within-population genetic diversity, despite the fact that the less inbred individuals may be favoured by selection within any given population. Overall, our results reveal that >50 years of metal contamination have significantly impacted patterns of genetic diversity observed among populations of wild yellow perch in mining areas and as such, may have affected the capacity of populations to respond to future environmental changes.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: evolutionary ecotoxicology; population genetics; wild fish; yellow perch; metal contamination; lakes; cadmium; copper
Centre: Centre Eau Terre Environnement
Date de dépôt: 08 janv. 2021 20:44
Dernière modification: 08 janv. 2021 20:44
URI: http://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/10868

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