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Optical quantum state generation with integrated frequency comb sources.

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Reimer, Christian (2017). Optical quantum state generation with integrated frequency comb sources. Thèse. Québec, Université du Québec, Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Doctorat en sciences de l'énergie et des matériaux, 158 p.

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Résumé

The exploitation of quantum mechanics has the potential to solve important challenges and introduce novel technologies enabling, among others, powerful computation (which can solve certain problems exponentially faster than classical computers), perfectly secure communications, as well as sensing and imaging with precision and resolutions not achievable by classical means. In order to make use of the unique properties of quantum physics, experimental platforms that provide access to, and allow the control of quantum states, need to be developed. In particular, quantum systems composed of multiple parties are required, where each party is in a coherent superposition of states, and where multiples of such parties are in a coherent superposition with each other (e.g. being entangled). Additionally, in order to make use of such entangled quantum systems, it is required that each individual party can be coherently controlled and measured. The usability and available quantum resources of the entangled system is related to its size, which is proportional to the number of entangled parties, as well as the dimensionality of the superposition each party is in. For this reason, there is a imminent demand to achieve, investigate, and improve the generation and control of large quantum systems, comprised of as many entangled parties as possible, where each party is in an ideally high-dimensional superposition. Many quantum platforms are currently subject to extensive research, such as trapped ions, superconducting circuits, defect centers in solid-state crystals, mechanical oscillators, and optical quantum states (i.e. photons). While all platforms provide distinct advantages (as well as challenges), optical photon states are of particular interest, because they can interact with other quantum systems, and can be transmitted over long distances while preserving their quantum coherence without the need for extensive shielding. A large variety of sources for optical quantum states has been demonstrated, however most such implementations suffer from high complexity, ultimately limiting their scalability. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of optical quantum states. However, to date, integrated quantum sources have only been able to generate photon pairs, which operated on single channels, and single polarization modes. Furthermore, in the few realizations of on-chip entanglement, they were limited to two entangled parties, where each party was in a two-dimensional superposition. These limitations of current integrated photon sources arise in large part from the concepts currently exploited to generate and control these states. In particular, path-entangled sources are the most commonly used, but increasing the quantum state complexity requires a significant, and very challenging, increase in device complexity. There is therefore an urgent need to develop new concepts that can achieve the onchip generation of large and complex photon states without increasing source complexity, while still enabling coherent quantum state control and detection. In this work, we aim to address these limitations by making use of multiple frequency and temporal modes within a single spatial waveguide mode (therefore readily compatible with standard optical fibers) of an on-chip microring resonator. This approach is in contrast to more commonly used techniques relying on path entanglement, which exploits multiple spatial modes and generates entanglement by means of complex waveguide structures. Working within a single spatial mode, we achieve the first demonstration of pure heralded single photons and entangled photon pairs, which are emitted on multiple frequency modes from a single source. We then demonstrate the first generation of multi-photon entangled quantum states on a photonic chip. Finally, by making use of the spectral multi-mode nature of optical frequency combs, we achieve the generation of photon pairs in a coherent superposition of multiple frequency modes, representing the first generation of high-dimensional entangled states on a photonic chip. Our work represents a significant step forward in the generation of complex quantum states on a photonic chip and in a single spatial mode compatible with standard optical fibers. In addition, we demonstrated coherent quantum state control and manipulation for all generated states by means of standard telecommunications components, which could in the future be also integrated on single, monolithic chip. Our results indicate that the exploitation of integrated optical frequency comb sources for the generation of optical quantum states can provide a scalable and practical platform for quantum technologies.

Type de document: Thèse Thèse
Directeur de mémoire/thèse: Morandotti, Roberto
Mots-clés libres: énergie et matériaux
Centre: Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications
Date de dépôt: 30 janv. 2020 22:10
Dernière modification: 30 janv. 2020 22:10
URI: http://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/9694

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