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Maar-diatreme geometry and deposits: Subsurface blast experiments with variable explosion depth.

Graettinger, Alison H.; Valentine, Greg A.; Sonder, Ingo; Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; Taddeucci, Jacopo (2014). Maar-diatreme geometry and deposits: Subsurface blast experiments with variable explosion depth. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems , vol. 15 , nº 3. p. 740-764. DOI: 10.1002/2013GC005198.

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Résumé

Basaltic maar-diatreme volcanoes, which have craters cut into preeruption landscapes (maars) underlain by downward-tapering bodies of fragmental material commonly cut by hypabyssal intrusions (diatremes), are produced by multiple subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Although many maar-diatremes have been studied, the link between explosion dynamics and the resulting deposit architecture is still poorly understood. Scaled experiments employed multiple buried explosions of known energies and depths within layered aggregates in order to assess the effects of explosion depth, and the morphology and compaction of the host on the distribution of host materials in resulting ejecta, the development of subcrater structures and deposits, and the relationships between them. Experimental craters were 1-2 m wide. Analysis of high-speed video shows that explosion jets had heights and shapes that were strongly influenced by scaled depth (physical depth scaled against explosion energy) and by the presence or absence of a crater. Jet properties in turn controlled the distribution of ejecta deposits outside the craters, and we infer that this is also reflected in the diverse range of deposit types at natural maars. Ejecta were dominated by material that originated above the explosion site, and the shallowest material was dispersed the farthest. Subcrater deposits illustrate progressive vertical mixing of host materials through successive explosions. We conclude that the progressive appearance of deeper-seated material stratigraphically upward in deposits of natural maars probably records the length and time scale for upward mixing through multiple explosions with ejection by shallow blasts, rather than progressive deepening of explosion sites in response to draw down of aquifers. Key Points Blast experiments successfully recreate maar-diatreme-like structures Ejecta distribution is controlled by scaled depth and ground condition Componentry indicates deeply sourced lithics are erupted by multiple blasts Only shallow blasts emplace ejecta to form extracrater deposits

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: diatreme; ejecta; experimental volcanology; maar
Centre: Centre Eau Terre Environnement
Date de dépôt: 10 avr. 2018 18:55
Dernière modification: 13 avr. 2018 15:18
URI: http://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/3592

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