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Classic nuclear localization signals and a novel nuclear localization motif are required for nuclear transport of porcine parvovirus capsid proteins

Boisvert, Maude; Bouchard-Lévesque, Véronique; Fernandes, Sandra; Tijssen, Peter (2014). Classic nuclear localization signals and a novel nuclear localization motif are required for nuclear transport of porcine parvovirus capsid proteins Journal of Virology , vol. 88 , nº 20. p. 11748-11759. DOI: 10.1128/jvi.01717-14.

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Nuclear targeting of capsid proteins (VPs) is important for genome delivery and precedes assembly in the replication cycle of porcine parvovirus (PPV). Clusters of basic amino acids, corresponding to potential nuclear localization signals (NLS), were found only in the unique region of VP1 (VP1up). Of the five identified basic regions (BR), three were important for nuclear localization of VP1up: BR1 was a classic Pat7 NLS and the combination of BR4 and BR5 was a classic bipartite NLS. These NLS were essential for viral replication. VP2, the major capsid protein, lacked these NLS and contained no region with more than two basic amino acids in proximity. However, three regions of basic clusters were identified in the folded protein, assembled into a trimeric structure. Mutagenesis experiments showed that only one of these three regions was involved in VP2 transport to the nucleus. This structural NLS, termed the nuclear localization motif (NLM), was located inside the assembled capsid, and thus can be used to transport trimers to the nucleus in late steps of infection but not for virions in initial infection steps. The two NLS of VP1up are located in the N-terminal part of the protein, externalized from the capsid during endosomal transit, exposing them for the nuclear targeting during early steps of infection. Globally, the determinants of nuclear transport of structural protein of PPV were different from those of closely-related parvoviruses. IMPORTANCE: Most DNA viruses use the nucleus for their replication cycle. Thus, structural proteins need to be targeted to this cellular compartment at two distinct steps of the infection: in early steps to deliver viral genomes to the nucleus and in the late steps to assemble new viruses. Nuclear targeting of proteins depends on the recognition of a stretch of basic amino acids by cellular transport proteins. This study reports the identification of two classic nuclear localization signals in the minor capsid protein (VP1) of porcine parvovirus. The major protein (VP2) nuclear localization was shown to depend on a complex structural motif. This motif can be used as a strategy by the virus to avoid transport of incorrectly folded proteins and selectively import assembled trimers into the nucleus. Structural nuclear localization motifs can also be important for nuclear proteins without classic basic amino acids stretch, including multimeric cellular proteins.

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Centre: Centre INRS-Institut Armand Frappier
Date de dépôt: 09 mars 2016 21:24
Dernière modification: 09 mars 2016 21:24
URI: http://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/3012

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