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Lipophagy confers a key metabolic advantage that ensures protective CD8A T-cell responses against HIV-1

Loucif, Hamza, Dagenais-Lussier, Xavier, Beji, Cherifa, Cassin, Lena, Jrade, Hani, Tellitchenko, Roman, Routy, Jean-Pierre, Olagnier, David et van Grevenynghe, Julien ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2952-4081 (2021). Lipophagy confers a key metabolic advantage that ensures protective CD8A T-cell responses against HIV-1 Autophagy , vol. 17 , nº 11. p. 3408-3423. DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1874134.

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Résumé

Although macroautophagy/autophagy has been proposed as a critical defense mechanism against HIV-1 by targeting viral components for degradation, its contribution as a catabolic process in providing optimal anti-HIV-1 immunity has never been addressed. The failure to restore proper antiviral CD8A/CD8 T-cell immunity, especially against HIV-1, is still the major limitation of current antiretroviral therapies. Consequently, it is of clinical imperative to provide new strategies to enhance the function of HIV-1-specific CD8A T-cells in patients under antiretroviral treatments (ART). Here, we investigated whether targeting autophagy activity could be an optional solution to make this possible. Our data show that, after both polyclonal and HIV-1-specific activation, CD8A T-cells from ART displayed reduced autophagy-dependent degradation of lysosomal contents when compared to naturally HIV-1 protected elite controllers (EC). We further confirmed in EC, by using specific BECN1 gene silencing and lysosomal inhibitors, the critical role of active autophagy in superior CD8A T-cell protection against HIV-1. More importantly, we found that an IL21 treatment was effective in rescuing the antiviral CD8A T-cell immunity from ART in an autophagy-dependent manner. Finally, we established that IL21-dependent rescue occurred due to the enhanced degradation of endogenous lipids via autophagy, referred to as lipophagy, which fueled the cellular rates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. In summary, our data show that autophagy/lipophagy can be considered as a therapeutic tool to elicit functional antiviral CD8 T-cell responses. Our results also provide additional insights toward the development of improved T-cell-based prevention and cure strategies against HIV-1. Abbreviations: ART: patients under antiretroviral therapy; BaF: bafilomycin A(1); BECN1: beclin 1; CEF: cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr- and flu-virus peptide pool; Chloro.: chloroquine; EC: elite controllers; FAO: fatty acid beta-oxidation; HIV(neg): HIV-1-uninfected control donors; IFNG/IFN-γ: interferon gamma; IL21: interleukin 21; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: Antiretroviral Therapy; FAO; HIV-1; IL21; Elite Controllers; Lipophagy; Polyfunctionality
Centre: Centre INRS-Institut Armand Frappier
Date de dépôt: 23 juin 2022 02:32
Dernière modification: 23 juin 2022 02:32
URI: https://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/12375

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