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Lethal and sublethal effects of diluted bitumen and conventional oil on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae exposed during their early development.

Bérubé, Roxanne, Gauthier, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2475-2050, Bourdin, Thibault, Bouffard, Marilou, Triffault-Bouchet, Gaëlle, Langlois, Valérie S. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4031-6838 et Couture, Patrice ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1944-5136 (2021). Lethal and sublethal effects of diluted bitumen and conventional oil on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae exposed during their early development. Aquatic Toxicology , vol. 237 . p. 105884. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105884.

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Résumé

The increasing extraction of bitumen from the oil sands region in Canada is creating a need for transport. Spills from current and projected pipelines represent a significant environmental risk, especially for freshwater ecosystems. The toxicity of diluted bitumen (dilbit) on freshwater fish is largely unknown. This study assessed the toxicity of two dilbits (Clearwater McMurray and Bluesky) and compared their toxicity to a conventional oil (Lloydminster Heavy) on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. Larvae were exposed to various concentrations of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of the oils during 7 days from hatching. In the WAF treatments, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), hydrocarbons containing 6 to 10 carbon atoms (C₆₋₁₀), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms were measured. Both dilbits contained higher concentrations of light components, while the conventional oil contained the highest concentrations of PAHs and alkylated PAHs. The Clearwater McMurray dilbit induced a higher mortality, with a maximum of 65.3%, while the other oils induced a similar mortality up to 16.5% and 18.6% for Lloydminster and for Bluesky, respectively. All three oils induced an increase in gene expression of the phase I detoxification enzyme (cyp1a) with increasing total hydrocarbon concentrations. All three exposures induced a similar increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, but no change in gst gene expression. For the Bluesky and Lloydminster exposures, an increase in malondialdehyde concentration was also observed, suggesting a rate limiting capacity of GST and phase II enzymes to perform the biotransformation of the PAH metabolites. Overall, this study brings new insights on the toxicity of dilbits in comparison to conventional oils on early life stages of North American freshwater fish and demonstrated that dilbits can be more toxic than conventional oils, depending on their composition and diluent proportions.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: diluted bitumen; toxicity; petroleum products; freshwater fish; gene expression; oxidative stress
Centre: Centre Eau Terre Environnement
Date de dépôt: 15 oct. 2021 17:37
Dernière modification: 15 févr. 2022 17:32
URI: https://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/12000

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