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Frogs Respond to Commercial Formulations of the Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Especially Their Intestine Microbiota.

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Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan Manuel, Patey, Géraldine, To, Tuan Anh, Lefebvre-Raine, Molly, Lara-Jacobo, Linda Ramona, Comte, Jérôme ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7936-4290, Klein, Bert et Langlois, Valérie S. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4031-6838 (2021). Frogs Respond to Commercial Formulations of the Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Especially Their Intestine Microbiota. Environmental Science & Technology , vol. 55 , nº 18. p. 12504-12516. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c02322.

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Résumé

It is generally believed that Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) biopesticides are harmless to non-target organisms; however, new research shows controversial results. We exposed acutely and chronicallyLithobates sylvaticusandAnaxyrus americanus tadpoles until metamorphic climax to VectoBac 200G (granules) and VectoBac 1200L (aqueous suspension) at 300–20,000 ITU/L covering field-relevant concentrations and higher. The data show that the exposure parameters tested did not affect significantly the survival, total length, total weight, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, the expression of genes of interest (i.e., related to xenobiotic exposure, oxidative stress, and metamorphosis), and the intestine tissue layer detachment ofL. sylvaticusandA. americanus in a concentration–response pattern. In contrast, VectoBac 200G significantly increased the median time to metamorphosis ofL. sylvaticus tadpoles by up to 3.5 days and decreased the median by up to 1 day inA. americanus. VectoBac 1200L significantly increased the median time to metamorphosis ofL. sylvaticusandA. americanustadpoles by up to 4.5 days. Also, the exposure to VectoBac 200G and 1200L altered the intestine bacterial community composition inA. americanus at application rates recommended by the manufacturer, which led to an increase in the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Changes in the intestine microbiota might impact the fitness of individuals, including the susceptibility to parasitic infections. Our results indicate that the effect of Bti commercial products is limited; however, we recommend that Bti-spraying activities in amphibian-rich ecosystems should be kept minimal until there is more conclusive research to assess if the changes in the time to metamorphosis and microbiota can lead to negative outcomes in amphibian populations and, eventually, the functioning of ecosystems.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: wood frog; American toad; Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis; Bti; biopesticide; ecotoxicity
Centre: Centre Eau Terre Environnement
Date de dépôt: 15 oct. 2021 17:44
Dernière modification: 31 août 2022 04:00
URI: https://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/11957

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