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Mechanobiological regulation of placental trophoblast fusion and function through extracellular matrix rigidity

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Ma, Zhenwei Parameshwar, Sagrillo-Fagundes, Lucas, Mok, Stéphanie, Vaillancourt, Cathy ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0543-6244 et Moraes, Christopher (2020). Mechanobiological regulation of placental trophoblast fusion and function through extracellular matrix rigidity Scientific Reports , vol. 10 , nº 5837. p. 1-12. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-62659-8.

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Résumé

The syncytiotrophoblast is a multinucleated layer that plays a critical role in regulating functions of the human placenta during pregnancy. Maintaining the syncytiotrophoblast layer relies on ongoing fusion of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts throughout pregnancy, and errors in this fusion process are associated with complications such as preeclampsia. While biochemical factors are known to drive fusion, the role of disease-specific extracellular biophysical cues remains undefined. Since substrate mechanics play a crucial role in several diseases, and preeclampsia is associated with placental stiffening, we hypothesize that trophoblast fusion is mechanically regulated by substrate stiffness. We developed stiffness-tunable polyacrylamide substrate formulations that match the linear elasticity of placental tissue in normal and disease conditions, and evaluated trophoblast morphology, fusion, and function on these surfaces. Our results demonstrate that morphology, fusion, and hormone release is mechanically-regulated via myosin-II; optimal on substrates that match healthy placental tissue stiffness; and dysregulated on disease-like and supraphysiologically-stiff substrates. We further demonstrate that stiff regions in heterogeneous substrates provide dominant physical cues that inhibit fusion, suggesting that even focal tissue stiffening limits widespread trophoblast fusion and tissue function. These results confirm that mechanical microenvironmental cues influence fusion in the placenta, provide critical information needed to engineer better in vitro models for placental disease, and may ultimately be used to develop novel mechanically-mediated therapeutic strategies to resolve fusion-related disorders during pregnancy.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: -
Centre: Centre INRS-Institut Armand Frappier
Date de dépôt: 20 juill. 2021 04:15
Dernière modification: 16 févr. 2022 15:36
URI: https://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/11632

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