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Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Canadian environment: Exposure and effects on wildlife.

Wallace, Sarah J., De Solla, Shane R., Head, Jessica A., Hodson, Peter V., Parrott, Joanne L., Thomas, Philippe J., Berthiaume, Alicia et Langlois, Valérie S. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4031-6838 (2020). Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Canadian environment: Exposure and effects on wildlife. Environmental Pollution , vol. 265 . p. 114863. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114863.

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Résumé

Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Wildlife (including fish) are chronically exposed to PACs through air, water, sediment, soil, and/or dietary routes. Exposures are highest near industrial or urban sites, such as aluminum smelters and oil sands mines, or near natural sources such as forest fires. This review assesses the exposure and toxicity of PACs to wildlife, with a focus on the Canadian environment. Most published field studies measured PAC concentrations in tissues of invertebrates, fish, and birds, with fewer studies of amphibians and mammals. In general, PAC concentrations measured in Canadian wildlife tissues were under the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) guideline for human consumption. Health effects of PAC exposure include embryotoxicity, deformities, cardiotoxicity, DNA damage, changes to DNA methylation, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and impaired reproduction. Much of the toxicity of PACs can be attributed to their bioavailability, and the extent to which certain PACs are transformed into more toxic metabolites by cytochrome P450 enzymes. As most mechanistic studies are limited to individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly BaP, research on other PACs and PAC-containing complex mixtures is required to understand the environmental significance of PAC exposure and toxicity. Additional work on responses to PACs in amphibians, reptiles, and semi-aquatic mammals, and development of molecular markers for early detection of biological responses to PACs would provide a stronger biological and ecological justification for regulating PAC emissions to protect Canadian wildlife.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); embryotoxicity; cytochrome P450; petroleum products; forest fire
Centre: Centre Eau Terre Environnement
Date de dépôt: 16 mars 2021 14:58
Dernière modification: 10 févr. 2022 21:26
URI: https://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/11453

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