Dépôt numérique

Synthèse de modèles régionaux d'estimation de crue utilisée en France et au Québec.

Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Lang, Michel; Bobée, Bernard; Bernier, Jacques ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0594-5922 et Bois, Philippe (1999). Synthèse de modèles régionaux d'estimation de crue utilisée en France et au Québec. Revue des sciences de l'eau , vol. 12 , nº 1. pp. 155-182. DOI: 10.7202/705347ar.

Ce document n'est pas hébergé sur EspaceINRS.


De nombreuses méthodes régionales ont été développées pour améliorer l'estimation de la distribution des débits de crues en des sites où l'on dispose de peu d'information ou même d'aucune information. Cet article présente une synthèse de modèles hydrologiques utilisés en France et au Québec (Canada), à l'occasion d'un séminaire relatif aux " méthodes d'estimation régionale en hydrologie " tenu à Lyon en mai 1997. Les modèles français sont fortement liés à une technique d'extrapolation de la distribution des crues, la méthode du Gradex, qui repose sur l'exploitation probabiliste conjointe des séries hydrométriques et pluviométriques. Ceci explique les deux principaux volets d'études régionales pratiquées en France : les travaux liés à la régionalisation des pluies et ceux liés à la régionalisation des débits. Les modèles québecois comprennent généralement deux étapes : la définition et la détermination de régions hydrologiquement homogènes, puis l'estimation régionale, par le transfert à l'intérieur d'une même région de l'information des sites jaugés à un site non-jaugé ou partiellement jaugé pour lequel on ne dispose pas d'information suffisante. Après avoir donné un aperçu des méthodes pratiquées dans les deux pays, une discussion dégage les caractéristiques principales et les complémentarités des différentes approches et met en évidence l'intérêt de développer une collaboration plus étroite pour mieux tenir compte des particularités et des complémentarités des méthodes développées de part et d'autre. Une des pistes évoquées consiste à combiner l'information régionale pluviométrique (approche française) et hydrométrique (approche québécoise).


Design flood estimates at ungauged sites or at gauged sites with short records can be obtained through regionalization techniques. Various methods have been employed in different parts of the world for the regional analysis of extreme hydrological events. These regionalization approaches make different assumptions and hypotheses concerning the hydrological phenomena being modeled, rely on various types of continuous and non-continuous data, and often fall under completely different theories. A research seminar dealing with " regional estimation methods in hydrology " took place in Lyon during the month of May 1997, and brought together various researchers and practitioners mainly from France and the Province of Quebec (Canada). The present paper is based on the conferences and discussions that took place during this seminar and aims to review, classify, comparatively evaluate, and potentially propose improvements to the most prominent regionalization techniques utilized in France and Quebec.

The specific objectives of this paper are :

· to review the main regional hydrologic models that have been proposed and commonly used during the last three decades ;

· to classify the literature into different groups according to the origin of the method, its specific objective, and the technique it adopts ;

· to present a comprehensive evaluation of the characteristics of the methods, and to point out the hypotheses, data requirements, strengths and weaknesses of each particular one ; and

· to investigate and identify potential improvements to the reviewed methods, by combining and extending the various approaches and integrating their particular strengths.

Regionalization approaches adopted in France include the Gradex method which represents a simplified rainfall-runoff model which provides estimates of flood magnitudes of given probabilities and is based on rainfall data which often cover longer periods and are more reliable than flow data (Guillot and Duband, 1967 ; CFGB, 1994). It is based on the hypotheses that beyond a given rainfall threshold (known as the pivot point), all water is transformed into runoff, and that a rainfall event of a given duration generates runoff for the same length of time. These hypotheses are equivalent to assuming that, beyond the pivot point, the rainfall-runoff relationship is linear and that the precipitation and runoff probability curves are parallel on a Gumbel plot.

In Quebec (and generally in North America), regional flood frequency analysis involves usually two steps : delineation of homogeneous regions, and regional estimation. In the first step, the focus is on identifying and regrouping sites which seem sufficiently homogeneous or sufficiently similar to the target ungauged site to provide a basis for information transfer. The second step of the analysis consists in inferring flood information (such as quantiles) at the target site using data from the stations identified in the first step of the analysis. Two types of " homogeneous " regions can be proposed : fixed set regions (geographically contiguous or non-contiguous) and neighborhood type of regions. The second type includes the methods of canonical correlation analysis and of the regions of influence. Regional estimation can be accomplished using one of two main approaches : index flood or quantile regression methods.

The results of this work indicate that the philosophies of regionalization and the methods utilized in France and Quebec are complementary to each other and are based on different needs and outlooks. While the approaches followed in France are characterized by strong conceptual and geographic aspects with an emphasis on the utilization of information related to other phenomena (such as precipitations), the approaches adopted in Quebec rely on the strength of their statistical and stochastic components and usually condense the spatial and temporal information to a realistic functional form. This dissimilarity in the approaches being followed on either side may be originated by the distinct topographic and climatic characteristics of each region (France and Quebec) and by the differences in basin sizes and hydrometeorologic network densities. The conclusions of the seminar point to the large potential of improvements in regional estimation methods, which may result from an enhanced exchange between scientists from both sides : indeed, there is much to gain from learning about the dissimilarities between the various approaches, comparing their performances, and devising new methods that combine their individual strengths. Hence, the Gradex method for example could benefit from an increased utilization of regional flood information, while flood regionalization methods utilized in Quebec could gain much from the formalization of the use of rainfall information and from the integration of an improved modeling of physical hydrologic phenomena. This should result in the enhancement of the efficiency of regional estimation methods and their ability to handle various practical conditions.

It is hoped that this research will contribute towards closing the gap between French and Quebec literature, and more generally between the European and the North American hydrological schools of thought, by narrowing the large literature that is available, by providing the necessary cross-evaluation of regional flood analysis models, and by providing comprehensive propositions for improved approaches for regional hydrologic modeling.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: modèle régional; crue; analyse fréquentielle; gradex; modèle débit-durée-fréquence; corrélation canonique; régression; indice de crue; précipitation; débit; regional model; flood; frequency analysis; gradex; flow-duration-frequency model; canonical correlations; regression; index flood; rainfall; runoff
Centre: Centre Eau Terre Environnement
Date de dépôt: 03 févr. 2021 20:50
Dernière modification: 16 févr. 2022 21:07
URI: https://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/11137

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