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Distribution of transportation "goods" and "bads" in a Canadian metropolis: A diagnosis of the situation and potential interventions to tackle environmental disparities

Carrier, Mathieu; Apparicio, Philippe (2019). Distribution of transportation "goods" and "bads" in a Canadian metropolis: A diagnosis of the situation and potential interventions to tackle environmental disparities In: Measuring transport equity. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 171-186.

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Résumé

Transportation networks are seen as playing a vital role in urban areas, as they foster access to centers of employment and a wide array of services and amenities, while encouraging the maintaining of a social network. However, the vehicles that use these networks produce large concentrations of air pollutants and noise that affect the individuals living near major traffic arteries. A distributional analysis of the burdens produced by road transportation was, therefore, performed for the territory of the Island of Montreal, an area with some 2 million inhabitants, representing the second most populous city in Canada. The first objective of this chapter is to measure the concentrations of air pollutants and levels of road traffic noise and the risks of accidents on the scale of all residential city blocks in the study area. Then, the second objective is to determine whether visible minorities and low-income individuals (two groups generally selected in distributional justice) are overrepresented in areas where there are both relatively high concentrations of burdens related to road transportation. Finally, the benefits related to transportation, that is, the access to services and amenities, were also measured on the same geographic scale to determine the balance with the burdens previously measured. Using advanced methods in the area of geographic information systems, we employed various techniques to measure the concentrations of pollutants and the number of services available near residential blocks, weighting them according to the proportions of the various groups that are generally considered in environmental equity studies (low-income individuals and visible minorities). Once all the blocks had been classified using a composite index based on the extent to which they concentrate both negative elements linked to transportation and poor access to amenities, we looked at diverse solutions available at different geographic and decision-making levels in order to reduce the environmental disparities measured for low-income individuals.

Type de document: Chapitre de livres
Mots-clés libres: Distributional justice; Environmental equity; Transportation Deprivation; Traffic-related pollutants; Road traffic noise; Accessibility; Policy interventions; GIS
Centre: Centre Urbanisation Culture Société
Date de dépôt: 12 sept. 2019 15:58
Dernière modification: 12 sept. 2019 15:58
URI: http://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/8667

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