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Klebsiella pneumoniae Siderophores Induce Inflammation, Bacterial Dissemination, and HIF-1 α Stabilization during Pneumonia

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Holden, Victoria I.; Breen, Paul; Houle, Sébastien; Dozois, Charles M.; Bachman, Micheal A. (2016). Klebsiella pneumoniae Siderophores Induce Inflammation, Bacterial Dissemination, and HIF-1 α Stabilization during Pneumonia Mbio , vol. 7 , nº 5:e01397. p. 1-16. DOI: 10.13039/501100000038.

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Résumé

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections, including pneumonia and bacteremia, and is rapidly acquiring antibiotic resistance. K. pneumoniae requires secretion of siderophores, low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators, for bacterial replication and full virulence. The specific combination of siderophores secreted by K. pneumoniae during infection can impact tissue localization, systemic dissemination, and host survival. However, the effect of these potent iron chelators on the host during infection is unknown. In vitro, siderophores deplete epithelial cell iron, induce cytokine secretion, and activate the master transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) protein that controls vascular permeability and inflammatory gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that siderophore secretion by K. pneumoniae directly contributes to inflammation and bacterial dissemination during pneumonia. To examine the effects of siderophore secretion independently of bacterial growth, we performed infections with tonB mutants that persist in vivo but are deficient in siderophore import. Using a murine model of pneumonia, we found that siderophore secretion by K. pneumoniae induces the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), CXCL1, and CXCL2, as well as bacterial dissemination to the spleen, compared to siderophore-negative mutants at an equivalent bacterial number. Furthermore, we determined that siderophore-secreting K. pneumoniae stabilized HIF-1 alpha in vivo and that bacterial dissemination to the spleen required alveolar epithelial HIF-1 alpha. Our results indicate that siderophores act directly on the host to induce inflammatory cytokines and bacterial dissemination and that HIF-1 alpha is a susceptibility factor for bacterial invasion during pneumonia. IMPORTANCE Klebsiella pneumoniae causes a wide range of bacterial diseases, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. To cause infection, K. pneumoniae steals iron from its host by secreting siderophores, small iron-chelating molecules. Classically, siderophores are thought to worsen infections by promoting bacterial growth. In this study, we determined that siderophore-secreting K. pneumoniae causes lung inflammation and bacterial dissemination to the bloodstream independently of bacterial growth. Furthermore, we determined that siderophore-secreting K. pneumoniae activates a host protein, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha, and requires it for siderophore-dependent bacterial dissemination. Although HIF-1 alpha can protect against some infections, it appears to worsen infection with K. pneumoniae. Together, these results indicate that bacterial siderophores directly alter the host response to pneumonia in addition to providing iron for bacterial growth. Therapies that disrupt production of siderophores could provide a two-pronged attack against K. pneumoniae infection by preventing bacterial growth and preventing bacterial dissemination to the blood.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: -
Centre: Centre INRS-Institut Armand Frappier
Date de dépôt: 20 févr. 2019 21:43
Dernière modification: 20 févr. 2019 21:43
URI: http://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/5527

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