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Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions.

Graettinger, Alison H.; Valentine, Greg A.; Sonder, Ingo; Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L. (2015). Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions. Bulletin of Volcanology , vol. 77 , nº 8. p. 66. DOI: 10.1007/s00445-015-0951-x.

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Résumé

The volume, grain size, and depositional facies of material deposited outside an explosion crater, ejecta, are sensitive to the depth of the explosion, the explosion energy, and the presence or absence of a crater before the explosion. We detonate buried chemical explosives as an analog for discrete volcanic explosions in experiments to identify unique characteristics of proximal, medial, and distal ejecta facies and their distribution from a range of scaled depths in undisturbed and cratered ground. Ejecta are here discussed in terms of three facies: (1) proximal ejecta, which form a constructional landform around a crater; (2) medial ejecta, which form a continuous sheet deposit that thins much more gradually with distance; and (3) distal ejecta that are deposited as isolated clasts. The extent of proximal ejecta away from the crater, relative to crater size, is not sensitive to scaled depth, but the volume proportion of proximal ejecta to the total ejecta deposit is sensitive to the presence of a crater and scaled depth. Medial ejecta distribution and volume contributions are both sensitive to the presence of a crater and to scaled depth. Distal ejecta distance is dependent on scaled depth and the presence of a crater, while the volume proportion of distal ejecta is less sensitive to scaled depth or presence of a crater. Experimental facies and deposit structures inferred from observations of jet dynamics are used to suggest facies associations anticipated from eruptions dominated by explosions of different scaled depth configurations. We emphasize that significant differences in tephra ring deposits can result from the effects of scaled depth and preexisting craters on ejecta dynamics, and are not necessarily related to fundamental differences in explosion mechanisms or degree of magma fragmentation.

Type de document: Article
Mots-clés libres: ejecta; tephra ring; discrete explosion; proximal deposits
Centre: Centre Eau Terre Environnement
Date de dépôt: 20 avr. 2018 20:12
Dernière modification: 20 avr. 2018 20:12
URI: http://espace.inrs.ca/id/eprint/3855

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